In the present tutorial, we are going to analyze the mushroom dataset as made available by UCI Machine Learning ref. This tutorial is structured as follows. First, we are going to gain some domain knowledge on mushrooms.
Online: 10 hours ago
The Morel mushroom is within the domain of Eukarya because it has membrane bound organelles as well as a true nucleus with linear DNA which is two traits that all Eukaryotes share. The kingdom for this organism is Fungi.
Mushroomthe conspicuous umbrella-shaped fruiting body sporophore of certain fungi, typically of the order Agaricales in the phylum Basidiomycota but also of some other groups. Popularly, the term mushroom is used to identify the edible sporophores; the term totool is often reserved for inedible or poisonous sporophores. There is, however, no scientific distinction between the two names, and either can be properly applied to any fleshy fungus fruiting structure.
In a very restricted sense, mushroom indicates the common edible fungus of fields and meadows Agaricus campestris. A very closely related speciesA. Umbrella-shaped sporophores are found chiefly in the agaric family Agaricaceaemembers of which bear thin, bladelike gills on the undersurface of the cap from which the spores are shed.
The sporophore of an agaric consists of a cap pileus and a stalk stipe. The sporophore emerges from an extensive underground network of threadlike strands mycelium. An example of an agaric is the honey mushroom Armillaria mellea.
Mushrooms classification – part 1
Mushroom mycelia may live hundreds of years or die in a few months, depending on the available food supply. As long as nourishment is available and temperature and moisture are suitable, a mycelium will produce a new crop of sporophores each year during its fruiting season. Fruiting bodies of some mushrooms occur in arcs or rings called fairy rings.
The mycelium starts from a spore falling in a favourable spot and producing strands hyphae that grow out in all directions, eventually forming a circular mat of underground hyphal thre. Fruiting bodies, produced near the edge of this mat, may widen the ring for hundreds of years.
A few mushrooms belong to the order Boletaleswhich bear pores in an easily detachable layer on the underside of the cap.
The agarics and boletes include most of the forms known as mushrooms. Other groups of fungi, however, are considered to be mushrooms, at least by laymen.
Among these are the hydnums or hedgehog mushrooms, which have teeth, spines, or warts on the undersurface of the cap e. The polypores, shelf fungior bracket fungi order Polyporales have tubes under the cap as in the boletes, but they are not in an easily separable layer. Polypores usually grow on living or dead trees, sometimes as destructive pests. Many of them renew growth each year and thus produce annual growth layers by which their age can be estimated. The clavarias, or club fungi e.
One club fungus, the cauliflower fungus Sparassis crispahas flattened clustered branches that lie close together, giving the appearance of the vegetable cauliflower. The cantharelloid fungi Cantharellus and its relatives are club- cone- or trumpet-shaped mushroomlike forms with an expanded top bearing coarsely folded ridges along the underside and descending along the stalk.
Examples include the highly prized edible chanterelle C. The morels MorchellaVerpa and false morels or lorchels GyromitraHelvella of the phylum Ascomycota are popularly included with the true mushrooms because of their shape and mushroom structure; they resemble a deeply folded or pitted conelike sponge at the top of a hollow stem. Some are among the most highly prized edible fungi e.
Another group of ascomycetes includes the cup fungiwith a cuplike or dishlike classification structure, sometimes highly coloured. Mushrooms are free of cholesterol and contain small amounts of essential amino acids and B vitamins.
However, their chief worth is as a specialty food of delicate, subtle flavour and agreeable texture. By fresh weight, the common commercially grown mushroom is more than 90 percent water, less than 3 percent protein, less than 5 percent carbohydrateless than 1 percent fatand about 1 percent mineral salts and vitamins. Poisoning by wild mushrooms is common and may be fatal or produce merely mild gastrointestinal disturbance or slight allergic reaction. It is important that every mushroom intended for eating be accurately identified see mushroom poisoning. Videos Images.
Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires. External Websites.
Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. See all media. Show more. Full Article.
Britannica Quiz. Science at Random Quiz.
Which kingdom do mushrooms belong to? What dinosaur was a chicken-size predator? Test your knowledge of everything in science with this quiz. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. While mushrooms and totools poisonous mushrooms are by no means the most numerous or economically ificant fungi, they are the most easily recognized. The Latin word for mushroom, fungus plural fungihas come to stand for the whole group.
Similarly, the study of fungi is known…. Poisonous mushrooms, or totools as they are commonly called, are the widely distributed members of the class Basidiomycetes, although only a few are known to be poisonous when eaten see Table 5 ; some of the poisons, however, are deadly.
Most deaths attributed to mushroom poisoning result…. Bufotenine, originally isolated from the skin of to, is the alleged hallucinogenic agent contained in banana peels.
Mushroom species and classification
It has also been isolated in the plant Piptadenia peregrina and the mushroom Amanita muscaria and is thought to be the…. History at your fingertips. up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! address.
Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.