Some broad influences that influence all the target groups were identified in the research. These can be categorised into two areas: Knowledge of and attitudes to different methamphetamines and Geographical differences. Each of these influences are discussed in detail below.
Sometimes these other substances can also be harmful. Table 1: This table describes the different forms of methamphetamine, potency, common names and uses. Ice or crystal usually have higher purity than speed, and for this reason it gives a stronger "high" and lasts longer. There is greater potential for methamphetamine users to become dependent addictiondevelop psychosis, and suffer from long-term physical and mental health problems. Survey research suggests that methamphetamine use in Australia has not risen ificantly in recent years. In fact, usage has been relatively stable since
This document may contain dated information. It remains available to provide access to historical materials. This information bulletin provides an update on the availability of, demand for, production, transportation, and distribution of crystal methamphetamine. Your questions, comments, and suggestions for future subjects are welcome at any time.
Addresses are provided at the end of the. Contents Overview. Sources List of Tables Table 1. Estimated U. Methamphetamine Prices, Powdered and Crystal, June Overview High purity crystal methamphetamine, commonly known as ice or glass, is becoming increasingly available in the United States.
Infographics and media
Asian criminal groups that traditionally distributed crystal methamphetamine in Hawaii and on the West Coast are now distributing the drug in other areas of the country as well. Moreover, Mexican drug trafficking organizations DTOs and criminal groups are becoming increasingly involved in the production and distribution of crystal methamphetamine, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA and many state and local law enforcement officials. Crystal methamphetamine is a colorless, odorless form of d-methamphetamine, a powerful stimulant. It resembles glass fragments or shiny blue-white "rocks" of various sizes.
Street names for the drug include batu, crystal, glass, hiropon, ice, shabu, shards, Tina, ventana, and vidrio. Crystal methamphetamine and powdered methamphetamine both contain the same active chemical compound; however, crystal methamphetamine typically has a higher purity level and may produce longer-lasting, more intense physiological effects. In small doses crystal methamphetamine can heighten alertness, stimulate physical activity, and suppress appetite.
Chronic abuse can cause psychotic and violent behavior characterized by intense paranoia, visual and auditory hallucinations, and out-of-control rages. Crystal methamphetamine often is compared to crack cocaine.
The drugs produce similar physiological effects, are highly addictive, and typically are smoked using a glass pipe. Crystal methamphetamine also may be injected.
Immediately after smoking or injecting crystal methamphetamine, abusers experience a brief, intense sensation, or rush, that is followed by a high that may last 12 hours or more. Crack cocaine abusers experience the same effects for only 20 to 30 minutes. Withdrawal symptoms associated with both crystal methamphetamine and crack cocaine include drug cravings, paranoia, and depression.
Crystal methamphetamine is produced using a "washing" technique that involves dissolving powdered d-methamphetamine in a solvent such as acetone or denatured alcohol. The mixture is allowed to evaporate, causing crystals to form around the edge of the container in which it is being mixed.
Large crystals form when the solution evaporates at room temperature, and small crystals form when the solution evaporates in a cold environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. The crystals then are collected and dried, typically on a paper towel. The purity of the finished product varies depending on the amount of washing and the laboratory operator's level of experience. Risk of Explosion. Law enforcement personnel should exercise extreme caution when opening refrigerators and freezers found at crystal methamphetamine production sites.
Methamphetamine drug profile
The vapors from the solvents used to convert powdered methamphetamine to crystal methamphetamine are extremely volatile and can accumulate in a refrigerator or freezer during the evaporation process. These vapors may explode when the appliance's inside light activates as the door is opened. Law enforcement personnel should immediately unplug all refrigerators and freezers found at crystal methamphetamine laboratories to avoid this risk.
Crystal methamphetamine production and distribution traditionally have been associated with Asian criminal groups. These groups either produce the drug in the United States or smuggle it into the country from laboratory sites located in countries such as China, the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan. Since the mids Mexican DTOs and criminal groups have supplied powdered methamphetamine to Asian criminal groups in Hawaii and on the West Coast for conversion to crystal methamphetamine. Mexican DTOs and criminal groups now produce crystal methamphetamine in Mexico, California, and southwestern states and use their established transportation networks to distribute the drug throughout the United States.
To Top To Contents. Crystal methamphetamine was once available only in Asian American communities in Hawaii and to a lesser extent on the West Coast; however, the drug is now available in other communities and areas of the United States. Law enforcement officials attribute the increasing availability of crystal methamphetamine to the involvement of Mexican DTOs and criminal groups in the production and distribution of the drug, as well as to increasing Asian criminal group activity in other areas of the country.
Further, DEA reports that Mexican DTOs and criminal groups are producing and selling crystal methamphetamine for ificantly less than rival Asian criminal groups. The purity of crystal methamphetamine generally is much higher than powdered methamphetamine, and crystal methamphetamine typically commands a higher price.
The DEA Southwest Laboratory reports that the purity of powdered methamphetamine samples from Arizona, California, and Nevada averages 35 percent; however, it is not uncommon for the purity of crystal methamphetamine samples to exceed 90 percent. Table 1. Methamphetamine Prices, Powdered and Crystal, June The estimated U. According to the Peoria Police Department, the predominant drug problem in its jurisdiction is crystal methamphetamine, known there as shards. The DEA Phoenix Division reports that in its jurisdiction crystal methamphetamine, known as glass in Phoenix, typically is produced by independent Caucasian producers who operate small-scale laboratories that are capable of producing 1 ounce or less of the drug per production cycle.
During the first quarter of FY, law enforcement authorities dismantled two separate organizations distributing multipound quantities of methamphetamine and crystal methamphetamine in the San Francisco Bay Area. Most of the methamphetamine seized in those incidents exceeded 95 percent purity.
In a separate incident the San Francisco Metropolitan Task Force, with the assistance of the San Francisco Police Department, seized approximately 3 pounds of crystal methamphetamine with a purity of 98 percent. According to the DEA Western Regional Laboratory, the cleanliness and purity of the methamphetamine seized had not been seen for some time. It is unknown whether the methamphetamine was domestic- or foreign-produced, although several traffickers in the Bay Area appear to have mastered the process of washing methamphetamine to produce high purity crystal methamphetamine.
MSM, the common commercial name for the chemical methylsulfonylmethane, also is known as methylsulfone and dimethylsulfone DMSO2. As a cutting agent for methamphetamine, MSM offers many advantages. Pure MSM is an odorless, white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble and mixes readily with most substances without leaving a residue.
MSM usually is added to methamphetamine during the final stages of production. Methamphetamine cut with MSM often appears to be uncut because after the chemicals are combined and the mixture cools, the MSM recrystallizes, resembling pure methamphetamine. MSM distributors claim the substance is beneficial as a pain reliever and for animal and human connective tissue regeneration.
Other alleged benefits for both animals and humans include the reduction of inhalant allergen reactions; relief from the symptoms of lung dysfunction; relief of leg and back cramps, muscle spasms, and general soreness; improved overall health; and elevated mood. MSM is readily available in powder and tablet forms at livestock feed and equine tack stores, "super" pet food chains, warehouse stores, human nutrition centers, and upscale grocery stores.
MSM is available through mail order equine and veterinary supply catalogs and on numerous Internet sites. According to the DEA Oakland Resident Office, the majority of methamphetamine investigations in its jurisdiction involve crystal methamphetamine. In the second quarter of FY, there were two large crystal methamphetamine seizures in the Oakland area. In one incident DEA agents seized approximately 3 pounds of crystal methamphetamine and 1 pound of MSM, which was being used as a cutting agent.
In a separate incident the Oakland police seized approximately 2 pounds of crystal methamphetamine at a Hayward home. According to law enforcement sources in southern Alameda County, Filipino and other Asian American traffickers are involved in the production and sale of crystal methamphetamine in their jurisdictions.
Filipino and Hawaiian drug traffickers are the primary groups responsible for methamphetamine production in the Central Valley San Joaquin region.
Msm crackback: how to tell if ice is cut with msm
According to the HIDTA, as a marketing ploy food coloring occasionally is added during the crystallization process, turning the methamphetamine black; "black ice" is supposedly more potent. Hispanic criminal groups and gangs continue to emerge as the dominant crystal methamphetamine distributors in its jurisdiction. These groups sell high purity crystal methamphetamine for ificantly less than rival Asian groups.
DEA reports that the Los Angeles area is the source of supply for the majority of crystal methamphetamine distributed in Hawaii. The drugs were concealed in seven 1-pound bags in a water cooler. On December 4,grams were seized in South Gate. On August 8,DEA announced that more than 57 individuals in Southern California were arrested in connection with a 2-year investigation involving the production and distribution of methamphetamine, distribution of MDMA 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, known as ecstasyand drug money laundering.
During the course of the investigation, over 33 pounds of methamphetamine, 8 pounds of crystal methamphetamine, gallons of methamphetamine oil, and pounds of pseudo-ephedrine were seized, as were weapons, currency, vehicles, and 30, MDMA tablets.
What is msm?
The Santa Ana Police Department reports that Mexican criminal groups dominate the methamphetamine market in the city of Santa Ana and sell both powdered and crystal methamphetamine. DEA as well as numerous state and local task forces and police departments report that the availability of crystal methamphetamine known as glass has increased throughout Colorado.
Crystal methamphetamine sells for approximately 40 percent more than powdered methamphetamine in Colorado, and it has become the form of methamphetamine that is most popular with abusers. According to the DEA Miami Division, on November 27,agents seized 1 kilogram of crystal methamphetamine that was delivered to a residence by a package delivery service.
According to DEA, some members of the homosexual community in Fort Lauderdale use crystal methamphetamine extensively. According to the DEA Atlanta Division, there has been a large increase in the supply of crystal methamphetamine available in Atlanta.
Clubs in downtown Atlanta are a focal point for the abuse of crystal methamphetamine. One sample of crystal methamphetamine tested