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Pentyl nitrite vs amyl nitrite

Products containing alkyl nitrites, some of which have a street name of 'poppers', are inhaled and are used to produce a muscle relaxant effect. There is some, incomplete, evidence that particular members of the family of alkyl nitrite substances may be more toxic than others. The TGA has tested a range of alkyl nitrite-containing products to confirm the identity of the type of alkyl nitrite present.

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More information. As you may not know there are several types of poppers and not just one. Indeed what we generally call poppers is actually a substance that belongs to the group of alkyl nitrites.

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Amyl nitrite had been used clinically as early aswhen the Scottish physician Sir Thomas Brunton used it as a vasodilator as treatment for angina pectoris in his patients.

From: Encyclopedia of Toxicology Third Edition Kubic, M. Wahl, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology Third Edition It also acts as a vasodilator. Treatment with methylene blue may be indicated for ificant methemoglobinemia.

Amyl nitrite is highly flammable and reactive and is an explosion hazard in large quantities or in industrial settings. Acute exposure of amyl nitrite in some animals may result in increases in intraocular pressure.

Pentyl nitrite

Amyl nitrite causes methemoglobinemia, unconsciousness, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting. The skin is initially warm and sweaty and later becomes cold due to vasodilation.

It causes coronary blood vessel contraction, bradycardia, atrial fibrillation, cardiac ischemia, headache, convulsions, and diarrhea. Nitrite transferred through breast milk can cause methemoglobinemia in infants. Infants are at greater risk for the development of nitrite-related toxicity than adults due to their decreased ability to secrete gastric acid, higher levels of fatal hemoglobin, and diminished enzymatic capability to reduce methemoglobin to hemoglobin.

Nitrites can combine with secondary amines to form dimethylnitrosamines, which are acutely toxic to the liver and cause centrilobular necrosis, fibrous occlusion of central veins, and pleural and peritoneal hemorrhages in animals. Amyl nitritedespite its name, is used as a nitrate.

It is a yellowish liquid taken by inhalation of its vapor for angina pectoris. It has also been used to treat cyanide poisoning, but is nowadays used exclusively as a substance of abuse. Amyl nitrate can cause headache, flushing, hypotension, tachycardia, dizziness, and relaxation of the anal sphincter.

Pentyl nitrite

Less commonly it causes fainting, stupor, vertigo, incontinence, dyspnea, glaucoma, and methemoglobinemia. Rahul Bhattacharya, Swaran J. The protective effect of amyl nitrite is attributed to its vasodilatory effect, which can reverse the early cyanide-induced vasoconstriction Van Heijst and Meredith, Artificial ventilation with amyl nitrite broken into Ambu bags has been reported as a life-saving therapy in cyanide-poisoned dogs before induction of ificant levels of methemoglobinemia Vick and Froehlich, Representative Chemicals : Amyl nitrite ; Butyl nitrite; Isobutyl nitrite.

Chemical Structures :. Stanley F. Malamed DDS, Daniel L. Keep one or two vaporoles within arms reach of every dental unit so that when it is needed, time is not wasted looking for it Figure The vaporoles should be located so that the doctor or staff member can reach them without having to leave the patient.

In addition, several vaporoles should be kept in the emergency kit for use in other areas of the dental office. Cantrell, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology Third Edition Chemical Abstracts Service Registry : Amyl nitrite ; butyl nitrite ; isobutyl nitrite Synonyms for amyl nitrite: Aspiral; Isoamyl nitrite; Nitramyl; Nitrous acid, isopentyl ester; Vaporole. Chemical Structures:.

Amyl nitrite

Amyl nitrite. Butyl nitrite.

Gregory R. Thatcher, in Radicals for Life Alkyl nitrites, most notably iso- amyl nitrite IANshare many of the biological activities of nitrates. They are smooth muscle relaxants used as nitrovasodilators and as recreational drugs known as poppers. IAN is also used in kits to treat cyanide poisoning, its function being to oxidize haemoglobin Hb to methaemoglobin metHb which reacts with cyanide to form the non-toxic cyano-metHb.

Amyl vs pentyl etc

Ethyl nitrite EtONO is a gas at room temperature and pressure that has been the focus of recent preclinical and clinical studies, in which its use has been proposed as a haemodynamic regulator in laparoscopic procedures [ 45 ], and as a haemodynamic regulator to alleviate pulmonary hypertension and hypoxaemia in neonates [ 46 ]. Simple alkyl nitrites are excellent nitrosating reagents, particularly towards biological thiols, such as glutathione GSH.

Li-Tzy Wu, George E. Woody, in Principles of Addiction Of all inhalants used, use of nitrite inhalants amyl, butyl, and isobutyl nitrites or poppers is associated with an elevated risk for infections and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases e.

Inhaling nitrites can dilate blood vessels, increase the heart rate, and produce a sensation of heat and excitement that may last for several minutes. Since the early s, nitrite inhalants have been used by individuals to enhance sexual activities or to get high.

Although the rate of nitrite inhalant use is low in the general population, nitrite inhalant use is relatively common among drug abusers especially individuals in addiction treatment and homosexual or bisexual individuals, and its use is associated with risky sexual behaviors, illicit drug use, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, suicide attempts, and drug-related overdose.

Nitrite inhalants are the primary inhalant used by adults, and use in adolescents is less frequent.

Testing of alkyl nitrite 'poppers'

Young nitrite inhalant users thus represent a subgroup of highly troubled youth in need of help. Additional characteristics associated with nitrite inhalant use in adolescents include older age 15—17 yearswhite race, more than one race, and residence in a nonmetropolitan area. Amyl Nitrite Amyl nitrite had been used clinically as early aswhen the Scottish physician Sir Thomas Brunton used it as a vasodilator as treatment for angina pectoris in his patients.

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Amyl Nitrite A. View chapter Purchase book. Human Amyl nitrite causes methemoglobinemia, unconsciousness, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting.

Preparation Stanley F. Nitrite Inhalants F. Organic nitrates and nitrites as stores of NO bioactivity Gregory R. Woody, in Principles of AddictionNitrite Inhalant Use Of all inhalants used, use of nitrite inhalants amyl, butyl, and isobutyl nitrites or poppers is associated with an elevated risk for infections and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases e.