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The drug mescaline

Mescaline comes from button-shaped seeds found in the peyote cactus and also from some other members of the Cactaceae plant family and from the Fabaceae bean family.

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Mescaline is a psychedelic hallucinogen alkaloid acquired from small, mescaline-containing cacti, including: the Peyote cactus, the San Pedro cactus, and the Peruvian torch cactus. People have used mescaline for hundreds of years, particularly for religious rituals or ceremonies, and many Native Americans still utilize peyote today within legally-protected religious practices. Widespread use of psychedelics and mescaline drastically increased in the s, as more and more people began to search for the mystical experiences and introspective effects that the drugs offer.

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Mescaline is a hallucinogen that is derived from Mexican cacti peyote-cactus, Lophophora williamsii and is structurally related to amphetamines Section 2. Slothower, T. Wiegand, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology Third Edition Mescaline CAS: is a hallucinogen found in several North and South American cacti including Lophophora williamsiiwhich is often simply referred to as peyote.

Mescaline is a ring-substituted amphetamine 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine and a naturally occurring member of the phenethylamine class of intoxicants. In addition to being a drug of abuse, mescaline is most commonly used as a Native American religious intoxicant. Mescaline has no medical uses. Treatment of mescaline toxicity is symptomatic and generally requires supportive care only.

Mescaline itself is only one of the alkaloids present in peyote, but it produces the same effects as the crude preparation.

Chemically, it is related to amfetamine. Mescaline produces an acute psychotic state after 3—4 hours, affecting predominantly the right hemisphere [ 1 ]. In doses of some — mg it produces visual and occasionally olfactory or auditory hallucinations, illusions, depersonalization, and anxiety depressive symptoms [ 2—4 ].

The total picture can closely resemble that caused by lysergic acid diethylamide. Its physical effects include nausea, tremor, and sweating. Stork, S. Schreffler, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology Third Edition Mescaline causes hallucinogenic effects by stimulating serotonin and dopamine receptors in the central nervous system CNS. It selectively binds to and activates the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine HT 2A receptor with a high affinity as a partial agonist.

It is unclear how activating the 5-HT2A receptor le to psychedlia, but it likely involves excitation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and areas of the prefrontal cortex where hallucinogens exert their most promnent effects.

Mescaline (peyote)

Mescaline is also known to bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT2C receptors. In addition to serotonin receptor activity, mescaline also stimulates the dopamine receptors; however, it is unclear whether mescaline possesses dopamine receptor agonist properties or initiates the release of dopamine. In the peripheral nervous system, mescaline produces a sympathomimetic toxidrome consisting of mydriasis, diaphoresis, and psychomotor agitation.

Changes in catecholamine metabolism and adrenal medullary function may be responsible for the agent's peripheral effects. In animals, mescaline decreases the synthesis of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the brain. Mescaline may also produce cerebral vasospasm. Mescaline [2- 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ethanamine], a natural alkaloid present in peyote cactus, is a hallucinogen with psychoactive properties.

It can be ingested orally for hallucinogenic effects similar to LSD which include deeply mystical feelings, but LSD is approximately times more potent than mescaline in producing altered state of consciousness [43]. Although mescaline has the lowest potency among naturally occurring hallucinogens 30 times less potent than psilocybina full dose — mg has a long duration of action.

Mescaline is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and onset of effect may be observed within 30 min of ingestion. The highest psychedelic effect may be achieved within 2 h of ingestion but the effect may last as long as 8 h.

The plasma half-life of mescaline is approximately 6 h [44]. Higher dosage of mescaline is needed to produce the psychedelic effect not only due to weak potency of mescaline as a hallucinogen but also due to polar nature of the mescaline molecule.

Because of poor lipid solubility, mescaline does not easily pass the blood—brain barrier [45]. Active ingredient and duration of action after abuse of peyote cactus are given in Table A small amount of mescaline is oxidatively deaminated into 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyacetic acid [47]. Another minor metabolite of mescaline in human is 3,4-dimethoxyhydroxyphenyethylamine. After ingestion, mescaline can be detected in blood, urine, and hair. A mother found her boy of 17 years in his bedroom along with a plastic glass containing dark green liquid tea with strong bitter odor.

However, no other drug was detected indicating that the tea was prepared from peyote cactus. Based on thesethe authors confirmed abuse of peyote cactus in this boy [48]. Mescaline, the active ingredient of peyote, may cause fetal abnormalities [49]. Although rare, severe toxicity, and even death may occur from mescaline overdose.

One person who died under the influence of mescaline showed 9. Henry et al. The concentrations of mescaline were 2. Botulism causes skeletal muscle weakness due to bacterial exotoxin that irreversibly blocks the release of acetylcholine from presynaptic motor neurons. Thirteen church members ingested peyote from a communal jar during a ceremony and 2—4 days afterward, three men developed severe clinical symptoms due to botulism.

The peyote recovered from the jar containing water was analyzed by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, Botulism Laboratory, Atlanta, Georgia, and type B botulinum toxin was identified in the peyote cactus. Fortunately no patient died [52]. Food-borne botulism is due to toxin produced by harmful bacteria Clostridium botulism and such bacteria grow in anaerobic condition.

Storing peyote cactus with water in a closed jar may provide such condition for bacteria to grow. Nolte and Zumwalt reported a case where a year-old Native American man with a history of alcohol abuse ingested peyote tea. Later he developed respiratory distress and suddenly collapsed. His antemortem blood specimen showed the presence of mescaline 0.

Other than a trace amount of chlordiazepoxide, no other drug or ethanol was detected in postmortem blood [53]. Mescalineisolated by Arthur Heffter inis the active component of psychedelic cacti such as peyote Lophophora williamsii and wachuma Echinopsis pachanoialso known as San Pedro. The usual dose of mescaline in humans is between and mg and its effects last for 6—8 h Halberstadt, ; Shulgin, Twelve healthy, male volunteers, ingesting a dose of mg of mescaline sulfate were compared to 12 age-matched male who were given placebo.

After intake 4.

Max M. Mescaline is one of a group of substances see below for more examples whose chemical structure is similar to amphetamine but because of substitutions on the benzene ring, have hallucinogenic, rather than stimulant properties. Mescaline is found in the upper crown of the peyote cactus that grows extensively in Mexico and the southwest part of the United States.

These mescal buttons are harvested and then sliced into wafers. These are then softened in the mouth and then rolled up into balls and swallowed. Intense hallucinations follow which can last for many hours. Mescaline use has been part of the religious ceremonies of certain tribes of Native Americans for many hundreds of years and remains so today. Figure Peyote cactus buttons.

United states drug enforcement administration

Peyote contains a potent hallucinogen, mescaline. The buttons are usually eaten and the mescaline is absorbed into the blood stream. This seizure contained over cactus buttons, one of the The mescalines of this drug in Virginia at that time. John T. Cody, in Handbook of Analytical Separations Mescaline is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in the peyote cactus Lophophora williamsii see Fig. The cactus is fairly small and its he are dome-shaped. The he are harvested and dried as peyote buttons. The cactus grows in southern Texas and northern Mexico.

Although a natural product, mescaline is also synthesized for illicit use. Mescaline is analyzed from the plant material by drug of the drug from the buttons using alcohol. One such analysis utilized basic methanol for the extraction with methoxamine as an internal standard. A method for the analysis of a variety of psychotropic phenylalkylamines from plant material has also been used for analysis of mescaline from biological fluids [42]. Urine samples were extracted using cation exchange SPE.

The analytes of interest were chromatographed through an ODS column using acetonitrile:water:phosphoric acid:hexylamine as the mobile phase with UV detection at or nm.